National Library of Medicine-Scrubber  is an anonymization software tool that is specifically designed for coping with unstructured clinical text data. As such, k-anonymity is not applicable. Privacy is achieved by applying the HIPAA Safe Harbor model. National Library of Medicine-Scrubber treats text data anonymization as a process of eliminating a specific set of identifiers from the data, and the level of anonymization depends on the comprehensiveness of the identifier lookup data source. In addition, the reidentification risk measurement is not considered in this tool because the authors think that there is no established measure for reidentification of the patient from an anonymized text document.
A software engineer is a person who applies the principles of software engineering to design, develop, maintain, test, and evaluate computer software. The term programmer is sometimes used as a synonym, but may also lack connotations of engineering education or skills.
Software design is about the process of defining the architecture, components, interfaces, and other characteristics of a system or component. This is also called software architecture. Software design is divided into three different levels of design. The three levels are interface design, architectural design, and detailed design. Interface design is the interaction between a system and its environment. This happens at a high level of abstraction along with the inner workings of the system. Architectural design has to do with the major components of a system and their responsibilities, properties, interfaces, and their relationships and interactions that occur between them. Detailed design is the internal elements of all the major system components, their properties, relationships, processing, and usually their algorithms and the data structures.
Legal requirements for the licensing or certification of professional software engineers vary around the world. In the UK, there is no licensing or legal requirement to assume or use the job title Software Engineer. In some areas of Canada, such as Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec, software engineers can hold the Professional Engineer (P.Eng) designation and/or the Information Systems Professional (I.S.P.) designation. In Europe, Software Engineers can obtain the European Engineer (EUR ING) professional title.
Many software engineers work as employees or contractors. Software engineers work with businesses, government agencies (civilian or military), and non-profit organizations. Some software engineers work for themselves as freelancers. Some organizations have specialists to perform each of the tasks in the software development process. Other organizations require software engineers to do many or all of them. In large projects, people may specialize in only one role. In small projects, people may fill several or all roles at the same time. Many companies hire interns, often university or college students during a summer break, or externships. Specializations include analysts, architects, developers, testers, technical support, middleware analysts, project managers, educators, and researchers.
Software engineering extends engineering and draws on the engineering model, i.e. engineering process, engineering project management, engineering requirements, engineering design, engineering construction, and engineering validation. The concept is so new that it is rarely understood, and it is widely misinterpreted, including in software engineering textbooks, papers, and among the communities of programmers and crafters. 2b1af7f3a8